Residue bundling – a case study in Ireland.

  • Enda Coates Waterford Institute of Technology, Cork Road, Waterford City.
  • Tom Kent Waterford Institute of Technology, Cork Road, Waterford City.
Keywords: Logging residues, residue bundling, wood fuel quality, roundwood harvesting, machine productivity.


Bundling residues from clearfell sites for use as a fuel is widely practiced internationally and more recently in Ireland. However, there is little information as to which bundling approach is most appropriate under Irish conditions. To this end, a clearfelling operation that included residue harvesting was evaluated in a 45-year-old stand of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) in mixture with 5% grand fir (Abies grandis (Douglas ex D. Don) Lindl.). The objectives of the study were to determine if arranging the brash for bundling during timber harvesting would impact on the supply chain costs, quantity and quality of the fuel. This included operations of a cut to length harvester, a forwarder, a residue bundling machine, a forwarder extracting residue bundles, and a shredder processing bundles into hogfuel. The fuel quantity mobilised was estimated, and the fuel quality was assessed. Three treatments (which were not replicated) were applied. Roundwood harvesting and extraction cost to the roadside ranged between treatments from €6.58 to €7.66 per m³. In total, 589 bundles were produced, costing €4.80 to €6.43 per bundle between treatments (including forwarding). Shredding bundles into hogfuel cost €2.31 per bundle. The biomass removed ranged between 17.0 odt ha-¹ and 28.7 odt ha-¹. It was found that residues were most available for harvest and with highest energy content, when not used as a brash mat prior to bundling, and conversely were least available, with lowest energy content, when used as a brash mat and driven over.
How to Cite
Coates, E. and Kent, T. (2014) “Residue bundling – a case study in Ireland.”, Irish Forestry. Available at: (Accessed: 21July2024).